This page presents the most important events that have shaped Moscow's present-day appearance.
III-II century BC - The Bronze Age settlements appear within the present-day city limits.
1147 - Yuri Dolgoruki (the Long-Handed), a Prince of Kiev, “launched a great party” for his friends and allies on the Moskva River bank, according to the first written reference of Moscow.
1156 - A timber fortress built on the Moskva River bank.
1283 - Grand Principality of Moscow, also known as Muscovy, established.
1328 - Moscow’s ruler Ivan Kalita (the Money Bag) becomes the Grand Prince of all Russia. Masonry construction begins.
1495 - Construction of the Kremlin in its present appearance completed.
1547 - Ivan IV (the Terrible) becomes the Tsar of Russia and expands Moscow’s influence on vast territories.
1560 - Construction of St. Basil's cathedral on Red Square completed.
1612 - Citizens in arms liberate Moscow from Polish invaders.
1713 - Peter I (the Great) moves Russia’s capital from Moscow to newly born St. Petersburg, but Moscow retains some of its economic, cultural and political power.
1771 - Plague outbreak kills 50,000 or quarter of the city’s population.
1812 - Napoleon Bonaparte’s army invades Moscow but soon flees, the city severely damaged by fire.
1861 - Abolition of serfage results in a rapid growth of the city’s population, which soon exceeds 1,000,000.
1918 - The Bolsheviks return the capital’s status to Moscow.
1932 - Sweeping demolition of churches and monasteries begins.
1935 - Moscow metro starts operation.
1942 - The Red Army defeats the Nazi troops at the approaches to Moscow.
1957 - Construction of Stalin’s skyscrapers, also known as Seven Sisters, completed.
1970s - Many architectural monuments demolished in course of renovation.
1990s - Another construction boom begins, and new buildings overshadow many architectural gems.
2012 - Moscow extends its boundaries to become the sixth largest city in the world and tops the list of Europe’s largest cities.